Hindi Cases or Post positions

Sunday 31 May 2009

Himanshu R Pota - himanshu.pota@gmail.com


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[ Cases Table | Vocabulary | kartā (ne) (Nominative case) | karma (ko) (Accusative case) | karaṇa (se, ke dvārā) (Instrumental case) | sampradāna (ko, ke liye) (Dative case) | apādāna (se) (Ablative case) | sambandha (kā, ke, kī) (Genitive case) | adhikaraṇa (meṃ, para, pe) (Locative case) ]

Cases

Nominative (subject)kartā (ne) कर्ता (ने) Ram goes. rāma jātā hai|
Accusative (object)karma (ko) कर्म (को) Goes to the house. ghara ko jātā hai|
Instrumental (by, with)karaṇa (se, ke dvārā) करण (से, के द्वारा) Goes by car. kāra se jātā hai|
Dative (for)sampradāna (ko, ke liye) सम्प्रदान (को, के लिये) Goes for food. khāne ke liye jātā hai.
Ablative (from)apādāna (se) अपादान (से) Goes from office. kāryālaya se jātā hai|
Genitive (of)sambandha (kā,ke,kī) सम्बन्ध (का,के,की) His pen, his car, his clothes, his cars. usakā pena, usakī kāra, usake kapa.De, usakī kāreṃ|
Locative (in, on)adhikaraṇa (meṃ, para, pe) अधिकरण (में, पर, पे) Sits on the chair. kursī para baiṭhatā hai|
Vocative (Oh)sambodhana सम्बोधन Oh Ram, come here. o rāma, idhara āo|

Hindi grammarians from India have laid out Hindi grammar along the lines of Sanskrit grammar. From this view-point, action (verb) is the life of the sentence and other words in the sentence are classified according to how they relate to the verb. Firstly there are nouns which can relate to the verb in six different ways: (1) subject of the verb (nominative), (2) object of the verb (accusative), (3) instrument through which the action is achieved (instrumental), (4) person or thing for which the action is performed (davtive), (5) person or thing from which the subject separates (ablative), and (6) location on which the action is performed (locative).

These six cases are called kāraka कारक and there are two additional cases: genitive or possessive and vocative (to call).

Many non-Indian grammarians lump all the cases other than nominative case and call it the Oblique case.

Please pay special attention to cases in the learning stages. This will enable you to grasp the structure of Hindi easily.

maiṃne rāma ko hātha se khāne ke liye box se nikāla kara śyāma kī bread table para dī|

There are plenty of examples illustrating different cases in the notes on pronouns and Hindi Sentence Factory.

Vocabulary

(to be)-honā, (to bring)-lānā, (to buy)-kharīdanā, (to call)-bulānā, (to come)-ānā, (to cook)-pakānā, (to cry)-ronā, (to desire)-cāhanā, (to distribute)-bā.Nṭanā, (to do)-karanā, (to drink)-pīnā, (to eat)-khānā, (to fall)-giranā, (to fight)-la.Danā, (to fly)-uḍanā, (to give)-denā, (to hear)-sunanā, (to keep)-rakhanā, (to know)-jānanā, (to look )-dekhanā, (to say)-kahanā, (to sing)-gānā, (to sleep)-sonā, (to study)-pa.Dhanā, (to take)-lenā, (to write)-likhanā| (I)-maiṃ, (We)-hama, (You)-tū/tuma/āpa, (He/She/It)-yaha/vaha, (They)-ye/ve|

kartā (ne) (Nominative case)

  1. maiṃ lātā/lātī hū.N| hama/āpa/ye/ve lāte/lātīṃ haiṃ| tū/vaha/yaha lātā/lātī hai|
maiṃ/hama,
tū/tuma/āpa,
yaha/vaha,
ye/ve|
hotā/tī/te/tīṃ, lātā/tī/te/tīṃ, kharīdatā/tī/te/tīṃ, bulātā/tī/te/tīṃ, ātā/tī/te/tīṃ, pakātā/tī/te/tīṃ, rotā/tī/te/tīṃ, cāhatā/tī/te/tīṃ, bā.Nṭatā/tī/te/tīṃ, karatā/tī/te/tīṃ, pītā/tī/te/tīṃ, khātā/tī/te/tīṃ, giratā/tī/te/tīṃ, la.Datā/tī/te/tīṃ, uḍatā/tī/te/tīṃ, detā/tī/te/tīṃ, sunatā/tī/te/tīṃ, rakhatā/tī/te/tīṃ, jānatā/tī/te/tīṃ, dekhatā/tī/te/tīṃ, kahatā/tī/te/tīṃ, gātā/tī/te/tīṃ, sotā/tī/te/tīṃ, pa.Dhatā/tī/te/tīṃ, letā/tī/te/tīṃ, likhatā/tī/te/tīṃ hū.N/
hai
/haiṃ|
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karma (ko) (Accusative case)

  1. maiṃ gifts ko lātā/lātī hū.N| hama/āpa/ye/ve gifts ko lāte/lātīṃ haiṃ| tū/vaha/yaha gifts ko lātā/lātī hai|
maiṃ/hama,
tū/tuma/āpa,
yaha/vaha,
ye/ve|
sweets/boxes/boys/grils/car/drinks/apples ko lātā/tī/te/tīṃ,
sweets/boxes/boys/grils/car/drinks/apples ko kharīdatā/tī/te/tīṃ,
boys/girls/friend/waiter/teller/customers ko bulātā/tī/te/tīṃ,
school/hospital/shops/house/Canberra/station ko ātā/tī/te/tīṃ,
food/vegetable/chapati/curry ko pakātā/tī/te/tīṃ,
friend/mother/father/sister/brother/teacher ko cāhatā/tī/te/tīṃ,
sweets/boxes/boys/grils/car/drinks/apples ko bā.Nṭatā/tī/te/tīṃ,
work/shopping/teaching/learning/jogging ko karatā/tī/te/tīṃ,
water/coke/coffee/beer/juice/tea ko pītā/tī/te/tīṃ,
food/vegetable/chapati/curry ko khātā/tī/te/tīṃ,
sweets/boxes/boys/grils/car/drinks/apples ko detā/tī/te/tīṃ,
songs/speech/noise/talk/music ko sunatā/tī/te/tīṃ,
sweets/boxes/boys/grils/car/drinks/apples ko rakhatā/tī/te/tīṃ,
people/politicians/shop-keeper/teacher ko jānatā/tī/te/tīṃ,
river/mountain/house/road/students ko dekhatā/tī/te/tīṃ,
friend/mother/father/sister/brother/teacher ko kahatā/tī/te/tīṃ,
songs/poems ko gātā/tī/te/tīṃ,
books/magazines/speech/advertisement/poem ko pa.Dhatā/tī/te/tīṃ,
sweets/boxes/boys/grils/car/drinks/apples ko letā/tī/te/tīṃ,
letters/song/speech/essay/test/article ko likhatā/tī/te/tīṃ
hū.N/hai/haiṃ|
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karaṇa (se, ke dvārā) (Instrumental case)

  1. maiṃ hands/car/train/bus se lātā/lātī hū.N| hama/āpa/ye/ve hands/car/train/bus se lāte/lātīṃ haiṃ| tū/vaha/yaha hands/car/train/bus se lātā/lātī hai|
maiṃ/hama,
tū/tuma/āpa,
yaha/vaha,
ye/ve|
hands/car/train/bus se lātā/tī/te/tīṃ
rupees/dollars/cash/cheque/credit card se kharīdatā/tī/te/tīṃ
walking/car/train/bus se ātā/tī/te/tīṃ
stove/oven/open fire/wood/coal/gas/electricity se pakātā/tī/te/tīṃ
eyes/heart se rotā/tī/te/tīṃ
hands/plier/screw driver/driller/machine se karatā/tī/te/tīṃ
hands/spoon/fork se khātā/tī/te/tīṃ
hands/gun/bombs se la.Datā/tī/te/tīṃ
plane/wings/rocket/helicotper se uḍatā/tī/te/tīṃ
hands/cheque/donation/without receipt/sincerity se detā/tī/te/tīṃ
reading/listening/books/speech/research/meditation se jānatā/tī/te/tīṃ
eyes/glasses/spectacles se dekhatā/tī/te/tīṃ
pen/pencil/computer se likhatā/tī/te/tīṃ
hū.N/hai/haiṃ|
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sampradāna (ko, ke liye) (Dative case)

  1. maiṃ cooking ke liye lātā/lātī hū.N| hama/āpa/ye/ve cooking ke liye lāte/lātīṃ haiṃ| tū/vaha/yaha cooking ke liye lātā/lātī hai|
  2. maiṃ rāma ko detā/detī hū.N| hama/āpa/ye/ve rāma ko dete/detīṃ haiṃ| tū/vaha/yaha rāma ko detā/detī hai|
maiṃ/hama,
tū/tuma/āpa,
yaha/vaha,
ye/ve|
cooking/reading/eating ke liye lātā/tī/te/tīṃ
children/wife/husband/gift ke liye kharīdatā/tī/te/tīṃ
eating/meeting/fighting/talking ke liye bulātā/tī/te/tīṃ
meeting/talking/farewell/study/sleeping ke liye ātā/tī/te/tīṃ
party/feast/dinner/lunch ke liye pakātā/tī/te/tīṃ
family/class/group/children ke liye bā.Nṭatā/tī/te/tīṃ
family/school ke liye karatā/tī/te/tīṃ
country/state/ideals/school ke liye la.Datā/tī/te/tīṃ
travel/fighting/fun ke liye uḍatā/tī/te/tīṃ
John/Ram/Shyam/Julia ko detā/tī/te/tīṃ
learning/sympathy ke liye sunatā/tī/te/tīṃ
future/safety/association/family ke liye rakhatā/tī/te/tīṃ
passing/boasting/school ke liye jānatā/tī/te/tīṃ
book/exam/magazine/blog ke liye likhatā/tī/te/tīṃ
hū.N/hai/haiṃ|
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apādāna (se) (Ablative case)

  1. maiṃ fridge se lātā/lātī hū.N| hama/āpa/ye/ve fridge se lāte/lātīṃ haiṃ| tū/vaha/yaha fridge se lātā/lātī hai|
maiṃ/hama,
tū/tuma/āpa,
yaha/vaha,
ye/ve|
goodwill/efforts/laziness se hotā/tī/te/tīṃ
fridge/shops/markets/basket/cupboard se lātā/tī/te/tīṃ
shops/market se kharīdatā/tī/te/tīṃ
house/school/play ground/office se bulātā/tī/te/tīṃ
hospital/club/house/sports/lesson se ātā/tī/te/tīṃ
glass/bottle/jug se pītā/tī/te/tīṃ
plate/box/table/paper plate se khātā/tī/te/tīṃ
tree/table/roof/bus/train se giratā/tī/te/tīṃ
book/magazine/article/speech se pa.Dhatā/tī/te/tīṃ
box/fridge/plate/bag se letā/tī/te/tīṃ
hū.N/hai/haiṃ|
  1. hama textbook se pa.Dhate haiṃ|
  2. vaha apple ko basket se letā hai|
  3. ve school se calate hai.N|
  4. maiṃ library se book ko pa.Dhatā hū.N|
  5. vaha batsman se ball ko paka.Datī hai|
  6. maiṃ school se milī problem ko socatā hū.N|
  7. maiṃ milk ko carton se pītī hū.N|
  8. maiṃ restuarant se dinner ko khātī hū.N|
  9. maiṃ ghara se movie ko dekhatī hū.N|
  10. maiṃ school se calatī hū.N|
  11. maiṃ kenbarā se basa meṃ pa.Dhatī hū.N|
  12. maiṃ Darrell ko ghara se jāte dekhatī hū.N|
  13. maiṃ ghara se calatā hū.N|
  14. hama kenbarā se siḍanī ko khojate haiṃ|
  15. vaha bike ko priyā ke ghara se lete haiṃ|
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sambandha (kā, ke, kī) (Genitive case)

  1. maiṃ lātā/lātī hū.N| hama/āpa/ye/ve lāte/lātīṃ haiṃ| tū/vaha/yaha lātā/lātī hai|
  2. life end/life ending/rose ke petal hai/haiṃ|
  3. yaha life end/life ending/rose ke petal hotā/tī hai|
  4. Box cover/box receipt/box ke container hai/haiṃ|
  5. vaha box ke cover/box receipt/box ke container ko lātā/tī hai|
  6. Bata shoe/Carona cappala/Nike ke shoes hai/haiṃ|
  7. vaha Bata ke shoe/Carona cappala/Nike ke shoes ko kharīdatā/tī hai|
  8. Ram child/school girl/school girls/school ke boys hai/haiṃ|
  9. vaha Ram ke child/school girl/school girls/school ke boys ko bulātā/tī hai|
  10. fruit salad/eggplant vegetable/potatoe ke pieces hai/haiṃ|
  11. vaha fruit ke salad/eggplant vegetable/potatoe ke pieces ko pakātā hai|
  12. house block/CD copies/bank ke shares hai/haiṃ|
  13. vaha house ke block/CD copies/bank ke shares bā.Nṭatā/tī hai/haiṃ|
  14. Ram work/Shyam service/Mohan ke odd jobs hai/haiṃ|
  15. vaha Ram ke work/Shyam service/Mohan ke odd jobs ko karate/tīṃ hai|
  16. fruit juice/cooler water/ice water hai/haiṃ|
  17. vaha fruit ke juice/cooler ke water/ice ke water ko pītā/tī hai/haiṃ|
  18. hotel food/house chapati/Mary ke cake hai/haiṃ|
  19. maiṃ hotel ke food/house chapati/Mary ke cake ko khātā/tī hū.N|
  20. bank note/bank ke note/hotel receipt hai/haiṃ|
  21. vaha bank ke note/bank ke note/hotel receipt ko detā/tī hai|
  22. RK Narayan story/friend narration/magazine ke articles hai/haiṃ|
  23. ve RK Narayan story/friend ke narration/magazine ke articles ko sunate/tīṃ haiṃ|
  24. Shyam house/Mohan hotel/Sohan ke rooms hai/haiṃ|
  25. vaha Shyam ke house/Mohan hotel/Sohan ke rooms ko rakhatā/tī hai|
  26. Shakspeare quote/Dickens ke quote/Twain stories hai/haiṃ|
  27. maiṃ Shakspeare ke quote/Dickens ke quote/Twain stories ko jānatā/tī hū.N|
  28. Hindi play/English movies/China ke opera hai/haiṃ|
  29. hama Hindi ke play/English movies/China ke opera ko dekhate haiṃ|
  30. Rahamaan song/English poems/Hindi films ke songs hai/haiṃ|
  31. āpa Rahamaan ke song/English poems/Hindi films ke songs ko gāte haiṃ|
  32. Hindi sentence/Urdu poem/Dickens ke novel hai/haiṃ|
  33. āpa Hindi ke sentence/Urdu poem/Dickens ke novel ko pa.Dhate/tīṃ haiṃ|
  34. Ram name/Shyam book/Krishna ke blessings hai/haiṃ|
  35. vaha Ram ke name/Shyam book/Krishna ke blessings ko letā/tī hai|
  36. Shop account/News story/Journal ke article hai/haiṃ|
  37. vaha Shop ke account/News story/Journal ke article ko likhatā/tī hai|
  38. maiṃ India history ko pa.Dhatī hū.N|
  39. maiṃ Jeremy ke apple ko letī hū.N|
  40. ve Jeremy ke house ko calate haiṃ|
  41. maiṃ latikājī kī kitāba ko pa.Dhatā hū.N|
  42. vaha bowler ball ko paka.Datī hai|
  43. maiṃ exam problem ko socatā hū.N|
  44. maiṃ mā.N kī cāya ko pītī hū.N|
  45. maiṃ riśenajī kī kulphī ko khātī hū.N|
  46. maiṃ śārukha khānajī kī movie ko dekhatī hū.N|
  47. maiṃ mammī kī shop ko calatī hū.N|
  48. maiṃ tārā kī kitāba pa.Dhatī hū.N|
  49. mai Sarah ke dog ko dekhatī hū.N|
  50. vaha saṃgītā ke clothes ko ghara se lete haiṃ|
  51. maiṃ priyā ke ghara ko calatā hū.N|
  52. hama priyā ke ghara ko khojate haiṃ|
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adhikaraṇa (meṃ, para, pe) (Locative case)

  1. maiṃ house meṃ lātā/lātī hū.N| hama/āpa/ye/ve house meṃ lāte/lātīṃ haiṃ| tū/vaha/yaha house meṃ lātā/lātī hai|
maiṃ/hama,
tū/tuma/āpa,
yaha/vaha,
ye/ve|
day/night meṃ /bank para hotā/tī/te/tīṃ
house meṃ /roof para lātā/tī/te/tīṃ
shops meṃ /Internet para kharīdatā/tī/te/tīṃ
office meṃ /phone para bulātā/tī/te/tīṃ
hospital meṃ /road para ātā/tī/te/tīṃ
kitchen meṃ pakātā/tī/te/tīṃ
heart meṃ cāhatā/tī/te/tīṃ
birthday para bā.Nṭatā/tī/te/tīṃ
public service/university meṃ work karatā/tī/te/tīṃ
bar/restaurant meṃ pītā/tī/te/tīṃ
hotel/house meṃ khātā/tī/te/tīṃ
pool meṃ /stairs para giratā/tī/te/tīṃ
war meṃ /soccer field para la.Datā/tī/te/tīṃ
sky meṃ uḍatā/tī/te/tīṃ
hands meṃ /loan para detā/tī/te/tīṃ
hall meṃ /radio para sunatā/tī/te/tīṃ
bank meṃ /register para rakhatā/tī/te/tīṃ
movie meṃ /wall para dekhatā/tī/te/tīṃ
ear meṃ /phone para kahatā/tī/te/tīṃ
hall meṃ /radio para gātā/tī/te/tīṃ
room meṃ /bed para sotā/tī/te/tīṃ
book meṃ /board para pa.Dhatā/tī/te/tīṃ
hands meṃ /table para letā/tī/te/tīṃ
note book meṃ /paper para likhatā/tī/te/tīṃ
hū.N/hai/haiṃ|
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Last Modified: 22:08:54 2010/02/12