Hindi Tenses and Moods

Friday 1 May 2009

Himanshu R Pota - himanshu.pota@gmail.com

Infinitive form karanā (to do)

Simple Present

maiṃ karatā/karatī hū.N| hama karate/karatīṃ haiṃ| āpa karate/karatīṃ haiṃ| vaha karatā/karatī hai| ve karate/karatīṃ haiṃ|
I/We/You do. He (She) does. They do.

Present continuous

maiṃ kara rahā/rahī hū.N| hama kara rahe/rahīṃ haiṃ| āpa kara rahe/rahīṃ haiṃ| vaha kara rahā/rahī hai| ve kara rahe/rahīṃ haiṃ|
I am doing. We are doing. You are doing. He (She) is doing. They are doing.

Present Perfect

maiṃne kāma kiyā hai| hamane kāma kiyā hai| āpane kāma kiyā hai| usane kāma kiyā hai| unhoṃne kāma kiyā hai|
I/We/You have done work. He (She) has done work. They have done work.
maiṃne naukarī karī hai| hamane naukarī karī hai| āpane naukarī karī hai| usane/unhoṃne naukarī karī hai|
I/We/You have done a job. He (She) has done a job. They has done a job.
maiṃ gayā/gayī hū.N| hama gaye/gayīṃ haiṃ| āpa gaye/gayīṃ haiṃ| vaha gayā/gayī hai| ve gaye/gayīṃ haiṃ|
I/We/You have gone. He (She) has gone. They have gone.

Simple Past (Habitual)

maiṃ roza kāma karatā/karatī thā/thī| hama roza kāma karate/karatīṃ the/thī| āpa roza kāma karate/karatīṃ the/thī| vaha roza kāma karatā/karatī thā/thī| ve roza kāma karate/karatīṃ the/thī|
I/We/You/He/She/They did work everyday. roza-(everyday), kāma-(work).

Past

maiṃne kāma kiyā| hamane kāma kiyā| āpane kāma kiyā| usane kāma kiyā| unhoṃne kāma kiyā|
I/We/You have done work. He (She) has done work. They have done work.
maiṃne naukarī karī| hamane naukarī karī| āpane naukarī karī| usane/unhoṃne naukarī karī|
I/We/You have done a job. He (She) has done a job. They has done a job.
maiṃ gayā/gayī| hama gaye/gayīṃ| āpa gaye/gayīṃ| ve gayā/gayī| ve gaye/gayīṃ|
I/We/You have gone. He (She) has gone. They have gone.

Past continuous

maiṃ kara rahā/rahī thā/thī| hama kara rahe/rahīṃ the/thī| āpa kara rahe/rahīṃ the/thī| vaha kara rahā/rahīṃ thā/thī| ve kara rahe/rahīṃ the/thī|
I was doing. We/You were doing. He was doing. They were doing.

Past Perfect

maiṃne kāma kiyā thā| hamane kāma kiyā thā| āpane kāma kiyā thā| usane kāma kiyā thā| unhoṃne kāma kiyā thā|
I/We/You had done work. He (She) had done work. They had done work.
maiṃne naukarī karī thī| hamane naukarī karī thī| āpane naukarī karī thī| usane/unhoṃne naukarī karī thī|
I/We/You had done a job. He (She) had done a job. They had done a job.
maiṃ gayā/gayī thā/thī| hama gaye/gayīṃ the/thī| āpa gaye/gayīṃ the/thī| vaha gayā/gayī thā/thī the/thī| ve gaye/gayīṃ the/thī|
I/We/You/He (She)/They had gone.

Simple Future

maiṃ karū.Ngā/karū.Ngī| hama kareṃge/kareṃgī| āpa kareṃge/kareṃgī| vaha karegā/karegī| ve kareṃge/kareṃgī|
I/We/You/He (She)/They will do.

Future continuous

maiṃ kara rahā/rahī hū.Ngā/hū.Ngī| hama kara rahe/rahī hoṃge/hoṃgī| āpa kara rahe/rahī hoṃge/hoṃgī| vaha kara rahā/rahī hogā/hogī| ve kara rahe/rahī hoṃge/hoṃgī|
I/We/You/He (She)/They will be doing.

Future Perfect

maiṃne kāma kara liyā hogā| hamane kāma kara liyā hogā| āpane kāma kara liyā hogā| usane kāma kara liyā hogā| unhoṃne kāma kara liyā hogā|
I/We/You/He (She)/They would have done.
maiṃ gayā/gayī hū.Ngā/hū.Ngī (hoū.Ngā/hoū.Ngī)| hama gaye/gayī hoṃge/hoṃgī (hoveṃge/hoveṃgī)| āpa gaye/gayī hoṃge/hoṃgī (hoveṃge/hoveṃgī)| vaha gayā/gayī hogā/hogī (hovegā/hovegī)| ve gaye/gayī hoṃge/hoṃgī (hoveṃge/hoveṃgī)|
I/We/You/He (She)/They will be doing.

Past Conditional Tense

agara maiṃne kāma kiyā hotā to successful hotā| or agara maiṃ kāma karatā to successful hotā|
Had I done work, I would have been successful.

Imperative Mood

āpa karo/karīye/kareṃ|
You work.
mujhako/hamako/āpako/usako/unako karanā cāhie|
I/We/You/He (She)/They should do.

Causative - uḍatā, uḍātā, uḍavātā

vaha uḍatā hai| vaha pataṃga uḍātā hai| vaha pataṃga uḍavātā hai|
He flies. He flies a kite. He makes (someone else) fly a kite.
maiṃne/hamane/āpane/usane/unhoṃne kāma karavāyā|
I/We/You/He (She)/They got work done.

Subjunctive Mood

maiṃne/hamane/āpane/usane/unhoṃne kāma kiyā hotā|
I/We/You/He (She)/They would have done work.
maiṃ/hama/āpa/vaha/yaha/ve/ye gaye hote|
I/We/You/He (She)/They would have gone.

Incomplete action

maiṃ/hama/āpa/vaha/ve kāma karate hue so gayā/gayī/gaye|
I/We/You/He (She)/They slept while working (without completing the work).

Immediate action

maiṃ/hama/āpa/vaha/ve kāma karate hī so gayā/gayī/gaye|
I/We/You/He (She)/They slept as soon as I finished work.

Intermediate action

maiṃ/hama/āpa/vaha/ve kāma karate-karate so gayā/gayī/gaye|
I/We/You/He (She)/They slept while working.

Perfect Participle (having form)

Completed action

maiṃ/hama/āpa/vaha/ve kāma karakara so gayā/gayī/gaye|
Having finished work I/We/You/He (She)/They slept.

For - The Infinitive

maiṃ/hama/āpa/vaha/ve kāma karane ke liye gayā/gayī/gaye thā/thī/the|
I/We/You/He (She)/They went to do work.

Subject from Verb

maiṃ/hama/āpa/vaha/ve kāma karane vālā/vālī/vāle/vālīṃ hū.N/hai/ho/haiṃ/|
I am the doer. We are doers. You are doer(s). He is a doer. They are doers.

Some Points to Remember

1. Verbs are classified as transitive and intransitive and the form of the subject used (with or without ne) depends on the type of verb in perfect tenses subjunctive mood.

Common Verbs

ask to agree ask bring buy cut drink eat give go listen see open
A Devanagari script version of this document is also available.
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Last Modified: 14:31:23 2009/05/01