Pronouns sarvanāma

Saturday 3 May 2008

Himanshu R Pota - himanshu.pota@gmail.com


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[ Personal Pronouns | Demonstrative Pronouns | Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns | Interrogative Pronouns | Indefinite Pronouns | Reciprocal Pronouns | Relative Pronouns | Distributive Pronouns | More Examples |Something Extra | Translation of all English Pronouns ]

In this note pronouns are divided into sections according to the common divisions of English pronouns. In each section first pronouns are listed and then their declenation in seven cases; there is no Vocative case for pronouns.

Each section has examples and exercises. Please do exercises without fail to get familiar with the usage.

Please revise cases before working with this note on pronouns. In the declension tables given for pronouns below it must be understood that stands for all kā/ke/kī and meṃ stands for both meṃ/para|

vibhakti (Cases)

(1) kartā - ne - Nominative (Subject) (2) karma - ko - Accusative (Object) (3) karaṇa - se, ke dvārā - Instrumental (with) (4) sampradāna - ko, ke liye - Dative (for) (5) apādāna - se - Ablative (from) (6) sambandha - kā, ke, kī - Possessive (of) (7) adhikaraṇa - meṃ, para - Locative (in, on, under) (8) sambodhana - e, o - Vocative
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Personal Pronouns

Pronoun Nominative Accusat. Instrum. Dative Ablat. Possessive Locative
He/She/
It/That
vaha-usane usako usase usako-usake liye usase usakā/ke/kī usa meṃ/para
They ve-unhoṃne unako unase unako-unake liye unase unakā/ke/kī una meṃ/para
He/She/
It/This
yaha-isane isako isase isako-isake liye isase isakā/ke/kī isa meṃ/para
They ye-inhoṃne inako inase inako-inake liye inase inakā/ke/kī ina meṃ/para
You āpa-āpane āpako āpase āpako-āpake liye āpase āpakā/ke/kī āpa meṃ/para
You tuma-tumane tumako tumase tumako-tumhāre liye tumase tumhārā/re/rī tuma meṃ/para
You tuma-tumane tumheṃ tumhase tumhāre liye tumhase tumhārā/re/rī tumhāre meṃ/para
You tū-tūne tereko terese tereko-tere liye terese terā/re/rī tere meṃ/para
I maiṃ-maiṃne mereko merese mereko-mere liye merese merā/re/rī mere meṃ/para
I maiṃ-maiṃne mujhako-mujhe mujhase mujhe-mujhako mujhase merā/re/rī mujha meṃ/para
We hama-hamane hamako hamase hamako-hamāre liye hamase hamārā/re/rī hama meṃ/para
We apana-apanane apaneko apanese apaneko-apane liye apanese apanā/ne/nī apane meṃ/para

Examples

He is a good boy. = vaha acchā la.Dakā/bālaka hai|
Hari tells him. = hari usako kahatā hai|
Hari works with it. = hari usase kāma karatā hai|
Hari does work for him. = hari usake liye kāma karatā hai|
Hari gets from him. = hari usase letā hai|
Hari gets his pen. = hari usakā pena letā hai|
Hari sits on him. = hari usapara baiṭhatā hai|

Exercise

Take the above seven sentences and do the following:
  1. Make them as plurals, e.g.,
    They are good boys. ve acche la.Dake haiṃ|
    Hari tells them. hari unako kahatā hai|
  2. Write them with singular first and second person pronouns, e.g.,
    I am a good boy. maiṃ acchā la.Dakā hū.N|
    Hari tells me. hari mujhe kahatā hai|
    You are a good boy. tuma acche la.Dake ho|
    Hari tells you. hari āpako kahatā hai|
  3. Write them with plural first and second person pronouns, e.g.,
    We are good boys. hama acche la.Dake haiṃ|
    Hari tells us. hari hamako kahatā hai|
    You are good boys. āpa acche la.Dake haiṃ|
    Hari tells you. hari āpako kahatā hai|
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Demonstrative Pronouns

yaha this,ye these,vaha that, ve those.
Please see their declination in the personal pronouns section.

Examples

This is my cow. yaha merī gāya hai|
These are my clothes. ye mere kapa.De haiṃ|
That is my school. vaha merā vidyālaya hai|
Those are my friends. ve mere mitra haiṃ|
I like this. yaha mereko pasanda hai|
I see with this. maiṃ isase dekhatā hū.N|
I give money to this man. maiṃ isa ādamī ko paise detā hū.N|
I get money from this man. maiṃ isa ādamī se paise letā hū.N|
Dog of this man. isa ādamī kā kuttā|
I sat on this. maiṃ isapara baiṭhā|

Exercise

Make sentences is singular and plural and in all seven cases with the above four demonstrative pronouns and translate them into Hindi.
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Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns

svayaṃ, khuda, āpa are added after the pronoun to give the sense of myself, yourself, himself, etc. They are used both as reflexive and intensive pronouns.
Pronoun Nominative Accusat. Instrum. Dative Ablat. Possess. Locative
Self khuda-khudanekhudako khudasekhudako-khuda ke liyekhudasekhuda kā/kī/kekhudameṃ
Self svayaṃ-svayaṃ nesvayaṃ ko svayaṃ sesvayaṃ ko-svayaṃ ke liyesvayaṃ sesvayaṃ kā/kī/ke svayaṃ meṃ

Examples

He himself does it. vaha khuda karatā hai|
They themselves do work. ve khuda kāma karate hai|
You yourself eat here. āpa khuda yahā.N khāte hai|
I myself sleep here. maiṃ khuda yahā.N sotā hū.N|
We ourselves live here. hama khuda yahā.N rahate haiṃ|
He gave himself a gift. usane khudako upahāra diyā|

Exercise

Look at the example and exercise sentences from the personal pronouns section and while reading them make them into their reflexive and intensive forms. Remember always read ALOUD.
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Interrogative Pronouns

The interrogative pronoun stands in for the answer to the question. In English there are five interrogative pronouns:
who kauna, whom kisako, which kaunasā, what kyā, whose kisakā.
Of these five only the three: who kauna, which kaunasā, what kyā. are basic; whom kisako and whose kisakā are who kauna in different cases.
Pronoun Nominative Accusat. Instrum. Dative Ablat. Possess. Locative
What kyā kyākāhese kāheko-kāheke liye kāhese kāhekā kāhemeṃ
What kyā kyā kisase kisako-kisake liye kisase kisakā kisameṃ
Who (s) kauna/kisanekisakokisasekisako-kisake liyekisase kisakākisameṃ
Who (p) kauna/kinhoṃnekinheṃ/kinakokinasekinako-kinake liyekinasekinakākinameṃ
Which kaunasākaunase kokaunase sekaunase ko/ke liyekaunase sekaunase kākaunase meṃ
Who kaunasākisa ko kisa sekisa ko/ke liye kisa sekisa kā kisa meṃ
Please see the distinction between what and which: what is used when there are infinite possibilities but which is used for finite possibilities.

Examples

Who is here? yahā.N kauna hai?
What is here? yahā.N kyā hai?
Which child is here? yahā.N kaunasā bālaka hai?
Which book is here? yahā.N kaunasī pustaka hai?

Who kauna Examples

Who is here? = yahā.N kauna hai?
Whom does Hari know? = hari kisako jānatā hai?
By whom will Ram do? = rāma kisase kāma karegā?
For whom does Ram work? = rāma kisake liye kāma karatā hai?
From whom does Gopala get money? = gopāla kisase paise pātā hai?
Whose house is this? = yaha ghara kisakā hai?
In whom does Rama trust? = rāma kisameṃ viśvāsa kare?

Exercise

Write the above seven sentences by replacing who and whom by which and then translate them into Hindi, e.g.,
Which girl is here? yahā.N kaunasī la.Dakī hai?
Which child does Hari know? hari kisa bālakako jānatā hai?

What kyā Examples

What is there? vahā.N kyā hai?
To what are you going? āpa kisako jā rahe haiṃ?
By what do you work? āpa kisase kāma karate haiṃ?
For what do you give? āpa kisake liye de rahe haiṃ?
From what do you get? āpa kisase pāte haiṃ?
Of what is this box? yaha ḍabbā kisakā hai?
In what do you live? āpa kisameṃ rahate haiṃ?

Which kaunasā Examples

Which is the house? kaunasā ghara hai?
To which house is Mohan going? mohana kisa ghara ko jā rahā hai?
By which tool does Sohan work? sohana kisa auzāra se kāma karatā hai?
Keshav works for which child? keśava kisa bālaka ke liye kāma karatā hai?
Hari came from which house? hari kisa gharase āyā hai?
Harish takes which child's book? harīśa kisa bālakakī kitāba letā hai?
Ram keeps trust in which child? rāma kisa bālaka meṃ viśvāsa rakhatā hai?

Exercise

Write sentences in all seven cases for each of the pronouns: who, what, and which. Translate them into Hindi and read them ALOUD.

Examples

What is your name? āpakā nāma kyā hai?(infinite possibilities)
Which is your house? āpakā ghara kaunasā hai?(finite possibilities)
Which is your book? āpakī pustaka kaunasī hai?(finite possibilities)
Take whichever is your book? jo āpakī kitāba hai vaha le lijie|
Whom did you invite to the party? pārṭī meṃ kisako bulāyā hai?
Which did you prefer? āpako kyā pasanda āyā|
Which book do you like? āpako kaunasī kitāba pasanda hai?
Who did what to whom? kisane kisako kyā kiyā|
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Indefinite pronouns

koī (someone), kucha (something)
Pronoun Nominative Accusat. Instrum. Dative Ablat. Possess. Locative
Someone (s) koī/kisīnekisīko kisīsekisīko-kisī ke liyekisīsekisīkākisīmeṃ
Someone (p) kinhīṃ koinhīṃ ko kinhīṃ sekinhīṃko-kinhīṃ ke liyekinhīṃ sekinhīṃ kākinhīṃ meṃ
kuchais normally added before an object to give the sense of "some".

Examples

Someone will come to collect this book. koī yaha pustaka lene āyegā|
Something is touching me. kucha cīza mujhe chū rahī hai|
Tell this to someone. kisīko yaha kaho|
This belongs to someone. yaha kisīkā hai|

Exercise

Make sentences in all seven cases with koī (someone), kucha (something). Translate them to Hindi and read them ALOUD.

Reciprocal Pronouns

each otherāpasameṃ, one another eka-dūsare ko, andara hī andara

Examples

They love each other. ve āpasameṃ prema karate haiṃ|
Ram and Mohan respect each other. rāma aura mohana eka dūsare kā ādara karate haiṃ|
We are commanded to love one another. hama eka dūsare ko prema kareṃ aisā hameṃ kahā gayā hai|

Exercise

Make five sentences with reciprocal pronouns and translate them into Hindi and read them ALOUD.
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Relative Pronouns

jo, so pair, and jisa, usa pair aisā - like this, vaisā - like that. Here the relative pronoun so (that) is declined but most of the times vaha or yaha can be used instead of so|
Pronoun Nominative Accusat. Instrum. Dative Ablat. Possess. Locative
Who (s) jo-jisanejisako jisasejisako-jisa ke liyejisasejisakājisameṃ
Who (p) jo-jinhoṃnejinheṃ/jinakojinasejinako-jina ke liyejinase jinakājinameṃ
That (s) so-tisanetisako tisasetisako-tisa ke liyetisasetisakātisameṃ
That (p) so-tinhoṃnetinheṃ/tinakotinasetinako-tina ke liyetinasetinakātinameṃ

Examples

Get him who said it to you. jisane yaha kahā usako lāo|
What you are so is he. jo āpa haiṃ so vaha hai|
He who plays wins. jo khelatā hai vaha jītatā hai|
That is the person I talked about. jisa vyakti ke bāre meṃ maiṃne kahā thā vo vaha hai|
Do it as he said. usane jaisā kahā hai vaisā karo|
He said this way then do it that way. usane aise kahā to vaise hī karo|
It is a book that is difficult to ignore. yaha aisī pustaka hai jisako nazarandāza nahīṃ kiyā jā sakatā|
The dog, which is a terrier, is four years old. yaha kuttā jo ṭerīyara hai vaha cāra sāla kā hai|
I will consider renting or buying, whichever works out best. ghara kharīdanā yā kirāye para lenā ina donoṃ para vicāra karū.Ngā, jo bhī behatara rahe|
The girl who told me the story lives down the street. jisa la.Dakī ne mujhe yaha kahānī sunāī thī vaha isī sa.Daka para pāsa meṃ rahatī hai|
The girl whom I chose will get a present. vaha la.Dakī jisake liye maiṃ upahāra lāū.Ngā|
I am not sure whose that is. yaha kyā hai maiṃ niścita hokara nahīṃ kaha sakatā|

Exercise

Make twenty sentences using relative pronouns, translate them into Hindi, and read them ALOUD.
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Distributive Pronouns

hara eka-each, koī bhī-either, koī bhī nahīṃ-neither.

Pronoun Nominative Accusat. Instrum. Dative Ablat. Possess. Locative
Each (s) hara ekahara ekako hara ekasehara ekako-hara eka ke liyehara ekasehara ekakāhara ekameṃ
Either (s) koī/kisane bhīkisīko bhī kisīse bhīkisīko-kisī ke liye bhīkisīse bhīkisīkā bhīkisīmeṃ bhī
Either (p) kinhīṃ ko bhīinhīṃ ko bhī kinhīṃ se bhīkinhīṃko-kinhīṃ ke liye bhīkinhīṃ se bhīkinhīṃ kā bhīkinhīṃ meṃ bhī

Examples

Each of the boys gets a prize. hara eka bālaka ko prize milatā hai|
Each took it in turn. hara eka ne bārī-bārī se liyā|
Either of these roads leads to the railway station. koī bhī road railway station jātī hai|
Either of you can go. āpa meṃ se koī bhī jā sakatā hai|
Neither of accusations is true. koī bhī accusation true nahīṃ hai|

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Something Extra

Here are words for things like: that Ram, that much, like that, etc.
Pronoun Form Much Like
yaha (This) isa itanā aisā
vaha (That) usa utanā vaisā
so (That) tisa titanā taisā
jo (Who) jisa jitanā jaisā
kauna (Who) kisa kitanā kaisā

Examples

  1. That Mohan is going. vaha mohana jā rahā hai|
  2. Give this book to that Laxmi. yaha pustaka usa lakṣmī ko do|
  3. He gave gifts to those students. isane una chātroṃ ko upahāra diye|
  4. He works with those balls. vaha ina geṃdoṃ se kāma karate hai||
  5. We people ate food. hama logoṃ ne khānā khāyā|
  6. Talk to us teachers. hama śikṣakoṃ se bāta karo|
  7. Don't take money from us public servants. hama sarakārī naukaroṃ se paise mata lo|
  8. This land belongs to us farmers. yaha zamīna hama kisānoṃ kī hai|
  9. Put this on those boxes. isako una ḍabboṃ para rakho|
  10. This is a house. yaha ghara hai|
  11. Ram reads this book. rāma isa kitāba ko pa.Dhatā hai|
  12. Ram reads that much. rāma itanā pa.Dhatā hai|
  13. Ram is like this. rāma aisā hai|
  14. That is Sita. vaha sītā hai|
  15. Give it to that Sita. yaha usa sītā ko do|
  16. Sita writes that much. sītā utanā likhatī hai|
  17. Sita is like that. sītā vaisī hai|
  18. The boy you talked about is this. jisa la.Dake kī bāta karī thī vo yaha hai|
  19. The thing you wanted is this much. jo cīza āpako cāhie thī vaha titanī hai|
  20. The book you read is like this. jo kitāba āpa pa.Dhate ho vaha taisī hai|
  21. Take as much as you want. jitanā cāhie utanā le lo|
  22. Make it as you like it. jaisā pasanda hai vaisā banāo|
  23. Which book do you like? kisa kitāba ko pasanda karate ho?
  24. How much water is there? vahā.N kitanā pānī hai?
  25. Which type of room did you get? āpako kaisā kamarā milā?

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An Approximate Translation of English Pronouns

all saba; another anya; any koī bhī; anybody koī bhī; anyone koī bhī; anything kucha bhī; both dono; each hara eka; each other eka dūsarā; either ; everybody saba; everyone hara koī; everything hara cīza; few kucha; he vaha; her usako; hers usakā; herself vaha khuda; him usako; himself vaho khuda; his vaha; I maiṃ; it yaha; its usakā; itself vaha khuda; little thoḍā; many bahuta; me mereko; mine merā; more aura; most sabase zyādā; much bahuta; myself maiṃ khuda; neither nahīṃ; no nahīṃ; one eka; nobody koī nahīṃ; none koī nahīṃ; nothing kucha nahīṃ; one eka; one another eka dūsarā; other dūsarā; others dūsarekā; ours hamārā; ourselves hama khuda; several bahuta; she vaha; some kucha; somebody koī; someone koī; something kucha; that vaha; theirs unakā; them unako; themselves unako khuda; these ye; they ve; this yaha; those ve; us hamako; we hama; what kyā; whatever kucha bhī; which kaunasā; whichever kaunasā bhī/jo; who kauna; whoever koī bhī/jisako; whom kisako; whomever kisīko bhī; whose kisakā; you āpa, tuma; yours āpakā, tumhārā; yourself āpa khuda, tuma khuda; yourselves āpa khuda, tuma khuda;
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Last Modified: 07:50:06 2009/06/10